In French, appellation d'origine contrôlée, corresponding to the denomination of controlled origin (D.O.C).
Acronym for Accompanying Administrative Document, an official document issued by the Directorate General of Customs, which allows the transportation of any wine product between tax warehouses in the European Union.
Wine whose fermentation was stopped by adding brandy or vinous alcohol to the must. As the grapes' natural sugar did not turn into alcohol, these wines will be sweeter and have higher alcohol content.
Red grape vine that produces a colourful but characterless wine.
Rare red grape that is still grown in some old vines in Alentejo.
Same as medium-dry wine. Applies to wines with sugar content exceeds the value established for the half-dry wines, reaching a maximum of 45 grams/liter.
It is the result of the tannins, especially in young wines, which tend to decrease over the years, manifesting itself through a sense of rough in the mouth.
Floral aroma found in some very delicate whites (Riesling, Sauternes, Gewürztraminer, etc.)
Vine disease caused by mites.
Negative characterisation of a wine. Accidents may be caused by several factors, as for instance temperature or oxidation.
Wine affected by acetic bacteria; vinegary.
ACETALDEHYDE OR ACETIC ALDEHYDE
Ethyl aldehyde or acetic aldehyde is an essential substance in the aroma of certain wines. It distinguishes fortified wines that undergo a period of oxidative ageing, such as Tawny Ports and Sherry wines. These wines are characterised by a smell resembling that of certain fruit (apple, quince) or dry fruit (walnuts).
Wine with conservation problems, attacked by acetic bacteria. Presents sour taste or vinager's aroma, because of excessive volatile acidity.
Essential component of wine, important for its the balance and conservation. To the acidity of a wine contributes the different acids from grapes and the fermentation. With a low acidity, wine becomes uninteresting; with excessive acidity, the feeling in the mouth is of a rough wine. In the optimal quantity, produces wines with fresh and vivid characteristics.
Final gustatory and olfactory sensation's that the wine leaves after swallow it or expulsion. Same as mouth finish.
Wine with a very intense flavor, hard, due to the excessive presence of tannins or acids.
It is said of the evolution of the wines with time over which the characteristics change, in a positive or negative way.
It is the transformation of the sugars in the wort into alcohol through the action of yeast. It is of utmost importance that the temperature be kept within certain values, because if it is too low, the fermentation does not occurs, and if it is too high, the yeasts are destroyed. It is through the process of fermentation that grape juice is turned into wine.
Set of olfactory sensations produced by substances present in wine. Although only sometimes be referred to as "odor" (intranasally), the odor arrives also in the retronasal area, ie when the wine is at the mouth.
Wine with perfume or fragance.
Taste of attack is the term he uses for the first impression caused by the wine when it is being tasted.
One of the most appreciated varieties in Romania. It is used in the Odobesti region for the production of wines with body and personality.
Roman name given to Dionysus, the Greek god of wine.
Warranty document some wineries stick on the back of the bottle to give additional information about the wine's qualities, preservation, harvest year and age.
BACO BLANC OR BACO 22
Hybrid vine created in 1898 by François Baco. It is originated from crossing of Folle Blanche and Noah. It is authorised in Armagnac and some table wines in Southwest France.
Hybrid vine created in 1902 by François Baco. It is originated from crossing of Folle Blanche and Vitis riparia. It is mainly grown in the United States.
Microorganisms found in malolactic fermentation (lactic bacteria). Some bacteria may cause diseases in wine.
Spicy aroma resembling star anis.
One of the most grown red vines in Portugal, especially in Bairrada and Dão. In Bairrada, when the vines are grown in clay-limestone soils and the grapes are full ripe, it originates a coloured and structured wine. When it is grown in poor soils and harvested too early, it produces thin, astringent and less balanced wines.
It is a package designed for the storage and transportation of fluid through a resilient plastic bag which is placed inside a cardboard box. Once filled the packaging is sealed, leaving the content to flow via a tap.
It is the solid part of the bunch (stalks, skins and pips) that remains after pressing grapes. It is from this that is obtained by distillation, the brandy.
Portuguese brandy originated in the distillation of pomace.
BAIRRADA – DENOMINATION OF CONTROLLED ORIGIN
Portuguese wine region where some of the best red and sparkling wines are produced. Although Bairrada has a long history in wine culture, it was only in 1979 that it was designated a Demarcated Region. The dominant grape varieties are Baga, in red wines, and Maria Gomes and Bical, in white ones.
Process of vineyard's conduction consisting of a row of pillars that support four to six wires. The vines planted begin to bear fruit at the height of the first wire.
It is a vessel of wood, also called "balseiro", for the transport and subsequent fermentation of the grapes after the crushing process.
It is said of a harmonious wine, whose elements are combined in an exemplary manner, specially in the alcohol-acidity relation.
Resinous aroma (veneer, cedar, resin, ...) which can be found in some wines.
Winemaking process, also known as white vinification usually used in the production of white and rosé wines. Is a technique in which the fermentation takes place in the wort separated from the solid parts of the grape (stem and pellicle).
Separation of the solid parts of the grape bunch, removing it from the pan. Flow of sap from pruning cuts. This sap has a different composition from crude sap that flows during the vegetation.
Technique of grapevine's conduction in which this is pruned in the form of horizontal cord, with a vertical portion, the trunk, that, at some point, possesses two opposite horizontal arms.
Tasting/session in which the identity of the wine concerned is not revealed, nor the level of the brand, nor the year of harvest; so that the tasters do not be swayed by this information, making only a qualitative assessment of the product they are enjoying.
Term he uses to describe the feeling of weight and consistency of the wine in the mouth; when the wine has structure and character.
Said of a wine devoid of character, with reduced acidity or of a wine that lost their qualities over time.
Set of tertiary aromas, which develop during the process of aging in wood or bottle. It is found mainly in older wines, although often use the term to designate the general aroma of wines.
Vegetal formation that gives off a branch, a sapling.
Unpleasant, very powerful vegetable aroma resembling that of cabbage.
International red variety that is little productive but much appreciated for its quality. It produces wines with good tannin, though they evolve faster than Cabernet Sauvignons. Therefore, it is usually used in assemblages with the latter. It is also used in the Loire (Chinon, Bourgueil and Saumur-Champigny), where it goes by the name of Bréton, to produce varietal wines. It produces rosé wines in Anjou.
International red variety very appreciated to produce great ageing wines. It's of medium production and sensitive to powdery mildew. Its dark skin originates structured and very elegant, intense tannins. In order to accelerate its development, it is sometimes blended with less intense wines, such as Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Malbec or Tempranillo. It's the most prestigious red grape variety worldwide and is used in almost every producing country in Europe, (North and South) America, Australia and Africa.
Neutral salt found in carbonic acid. In cold areas or acid harvests, this salt is used in the deacidification of musts and wines.
Red grape from southwest France that is very sensitive to rot. It produces an ordinary wine of little colour.
White variety grown in small quantities in the French Occidental Pyrenees. It may, eventually, form part of jurançon and Béarn wines.
Red grape recommended in the West region, appearing also in Ribatejo.
Red variety grown in Châteauneuf-du-Pape, in the Rhône Valley. Ampelographs prefer the term Vacarèse to Camarèse. It's one of the thirteen varieties authorised in the AOC Châteauneuf-du-Pape. It's currently being set aside by Syrah.
Smell found in some young wines, resembling the plant (macela).
Vegetable aroma of certain wines made up of grapes rich in terpenic components.
Said of a wine with high alcohol content.
It is said of a dense wine with high alcohol content. Sometimes also applies to the color intensity of the wine.
Gas produced during fermentation processes, but that can also be added to the wine (carbon dioxide).
It is said of the "personality" of a good wine, consisting in a set of unique characteristics that allows to distinguish them from the others.
Consists in the process of adding sugar to the wort during the fermentation process in order to increase the alcohol content of wine and make it more balanced. This method was introduced by French chemist Jean-Antoine Chaptal (1756-1832), and is mainly used in cold areas.
This is a designation provided by law, reserved to wines with Designation of Origin and Geographical Indications, presenting organoleptic special characteristics.
Wine without suspended solids.
Said of a wine that has not yet revealed its full potential flavor, because he is too cold or because it is a young wine.
Consists in the process of elimination of the solids that are suspended in the wine, in order to make it more clear.
Clarification technique that consists in adding a glue or clarifiers, such as for example clear egg, casein or bentonite; that drags down the suspended solids in the wine.
It is said of a wine rich in aromas.
Vines conduction technique, considered as a development of the crosshead, although the shape of supporting the vines be similar to bards. As in these, the support structure comprises "esteios" lines in which wires are placed, which support the vegetative and productive part of the grapevines.
Aroma and taste musty. Characteristic caused by the action of bacteria that develop in the cork.
Is a method of analysis which allows to verify the composition of wines and perform quality checks.
Method of vineyard's conduction, where these are arranged in rows of crosses, with about two feet tall, and about whose arms are extended wires. The vines are planted at the base of the crosses, extending posteriorly along the wires.
Vinification's technique is generally used for obtaining red wines, in which the must is fermented in contact with the pulp.
This is a wine where the taste does not persist; without mouth finish.
Operation and technique that consists in causing the rupture of the film and shred the pulp of grapes to extract as much juice as possible.
Wine that is decaying.
Said of an altered wine that is faulty or that has been attacked by a disease.
Losses of volume due to evaporation in the casks, drainage, handling, etc.
Steam jet apparatus used by coopers to soften wood and make it malleable.
DÃO – DENOMINATION OF CONTROLLED ORIGIN
Very important wine region demarcated in 1908. It is located in the centre of Portugal and is divided into three distinct areas: Central North, Central South and Periphery. It is a temperate region whose best wines are elegant while at the same time powerful and, sometimes, with excellent ageing potential. The main red grape varieties for the production of quality wines are: Touriga Nacional, Tinta Roriz, Alfrocheiro Preto and Jaen. Encruzado, Assario, Barcelo and Borrado das Moscas are the most important white grape varieties.
Said of a wine that is almost black, with intense pigment. "Dark as the deep sea", this is how Homer describes Mediterranean wines.
Sweet aroma of raisins that is found in very mature wines, mainly in rancid and fortified ones. It usually appears with toasted notes.
Operation performed to reduce a must's or wine's acidity. This is done by physical, chemical or biological processes. The simplest physical process is to cool the must, thus causing the precipitation of potassium bitartrates. In the chemical method certain substances (calcium or potassium carbonate) capable of neutralising the acids are added. The biological process causes malolactic fermentation (thanks to bacteria), transforming malic acid (greener) into lactic acid (smoother).
Removing lees from the must.
Suspended particles that cloud the grape must. They are separated by debourbage.
Operation to eliminate the lees present in the must.
DENOMINATION OF ORIGIN
Concept applied to certain wines, whose individuality and individual character are indelibly linked to a particular region. The grape varieties used, vinification method's applied and the organoleptic characteristics are some of the elements which the control allows the assignment of the Denomination of Origin.
It is said from the wine that is not defective, but are also not distinguished from others by its characteristics.
Denomination of Controlled Origin. Has this status the wines from the old demarcated regions.
Protected Designation of Origin. It is a system of protection applied to foodstuffs, guaranteeing its genuineness.
Term that characterizes the wines with low sugar content. Applies when the wine has at most a residual sugars content of four grams per liter (or of nine grams / liter if the total acidity is not lower by more than two grams per liter, in relation the sugar content) .
Pruning that is performed when the grape berries are forming (June) in an attempt to increase the concentration and quality of the bunches by cutting a considerable amount of bunches per vine.
EARTHY (FREE TRANSLATION)
With aroma or taste of earth, of the soil where the grape came from. This is characteristic of mature Cabernet and Merlot grapes.
This is how Madeira and Sherry wines that had been transported to the Orient, crossing the tropics, were called back at the time of sail boats. It was believed that the trip improved the wine's quality. When commercial sail ended, Madeira wines started to be mechanically heated, in an attempt to reproduce such beneficial effect. Some East India Sherry are still sold today in England. These wines are usually odoriferous and a little sweet.
Said of a wine that is pleasant but with no complexity.
Smell resembling that of plastic woods and synthetic catechu. It is found in faulty wines, produced by improper means (plastic containers, for instance).
Apparatus used to measure the alcohol content of wines and brandies. It is based on the boiling point of alcohol, at 78.35ºC, a temperature lower than that of the boiling point of water.
In Alsace (France), wine made up of a blend of white grapes.
To sweeten must by addition of sugar, to chaptalise.
That releases carbon dioxide. It is characteristic of sparkling wines.
White variety grown in the cold vineyards of northern Europe (Luxembourg, Moselle). It produces low quality, acid wines. However, tradition says it descends directly from Plinio's vitis alba.
It is said of a harmonious, balanced and delicate wine.
Viticulture operation, performed after pruning and consists in fixing, in a bent position, of a stick of vine to the wires or tree branches that sustain the strains, so that takes the desired shape.
Column of wood, stone, iron or other material that serves to keep the vine.
END OF MOUTH
It's the taste that wine leaves in your mouth after have been drank or tasted. It can be long or short, depending if the taste remains for more or less time.
Wine that shows changes after the stage in cuba, coke or bottle. Evolution can be negative when an excessive oxidation occurs; or positive, when their skills are enhanced (can be seen a development of flavorings).
Said of a fine, delicate wine but without character.
White variety grown in Campania (Italy). It forms part of Falerno.
The most famous wine of classic Greece, produced in Campania. The region now produces a light, honest white. But the famous falernum of ancient times was red, since the best Mediterranean wines were always characterised by their pigment.
To make a deceptive replica of a product, brand, etc. To alter a wine (adding forbidden substances, adding substances in doses superior to those authorised or using processes that are against the law) with the intention to deceive. Very often, falsification is done using the brand and image of someone else, or imitating some of its characteristics.
Wine farm/vineyard that is property of a wine producer.
Impression wine leaves in the mouth; term associated to wines produced in hot climates and with very ripe grapes; it can also be a synonym for buttered.
FAT BERRY CAÍÑO (FREE TRANSLATION)
Also known as borrasao, this is a traditional red variety from Galicia. Its growing is now in disuse; however, there's a white mutation of the same vine, grown in the Galician vineyards.
Change in wine that makes it become oleaginous and viscous due to an anaerobic bacteria (especially in white wines).
Transitory fault in wine that has been subject to rackings, filterings or other cares. It is characterised by a loss of character. When wines are transported they suffer sensory fatigue and should be left to rest for a couple of hours in order to recompose and recover their aromas.
Voids or faults found in a vineyard plantation when some plant doesn't develop or accidentally dies.
Corresponds to the set of non-distillable acids contained in wine. Includes the following acids: tartaric, malic, citric, succinic and lactic acid.
Aromas that are left in the wine and that evoke the scent of flowers (pink, violet, honeysuckle ...).
It is the soft, flimsy, without harshness, flavor.
Wine of noble character, but without elegance.
Said of a wine that due to its natural acidity, conveys a sense of freshness.
Aromas and flavors of citrus, tropical fruits, ...
It is the foam, characteristic of red wines, ephemeral; aroma somewhat persistent; Wine which fades into the mouth finish.
Means the same as full-bodied.
Said of a wine with very body with structure and strong character.
It is said of the maximum stadium of evolution of a wine, where their qualities are at the highest point of its development. After the phase of the fullness, the wine comes into decline.
Red variety grown in Calabria and other regions in Italy. It produces concentrated wines rich in alcohol. It is also called Navarra grape.
English capacity measure equivalent to 4.5l (imperial gallons). The American gallon has 3.78l (4 quarts; 8 pints; 128 fluid ounces).
Red variety grown in Beaujolais. It is produced as red or rosé and gives very fruity, floral wines.
Strong animal smell characteristic of developed wines that suffered strong reduction in bottle.
Natural process for ageing Madeira wine. The gantry is the set of beams where Madeira hogsheads are placed.
Unwanted aroma and flavour that may appear in wines that underwent bad vinification or wines with excessive sorbic acid (used as a preserving agent).
To cover glass bottles with slightly woven or wicker woven nylon net or metallic mesh, in order to protect the bottles from hits.
GARRAFEIRA (WINE CELLAR)
Quality reference that comes with some Portuguese Reserva wines (when these age in bottle for at least one year).
Traditional red variety of Catalonia that produces very fruity young wines with juicy tannins.
Quality liqueur wine. Examples of fortified wine are Madeira and Porto wine.
Name assigned to the vine that produces grapes with certain characteristics. In wine tasting, is used to designate specific aromas and flavors of the grape that originated particular wine.
Operation/technique consisting of the association of two vegetal structures with the aim of obtaining a plant. In viticulture, the grafting is done in vine foot resistant to phylloxera.
It is a planting technique that uses vines already grafted.
Are solid particles that settle to the bottom of containers that contain wine.
Said of a supposedly still wine that has too much carbon dioxide dissolved in it.
Wine resulting from exhaustion (or draining) of the fermentation vats.
Meteorological accident that is very harmful to the vine.
Said of a dense coating of fine hairs that cover the leaves of certain grapevine varieties.
HALF (OR SPLIT)
3.75dl capacity bottle, which is half a common bottle.
Very astringent wine, with too much tannins. Characteristic of young red wines, that may "soften" with age.
The same as balanced.
Round, all components well balanced.
Sensation caused by a wine with excess tannin, alcohol and extract. This association can derive from a mismatch between wine and food, when a full bodied, tannic wine is chosen to accompany a very light dish.
HARSLEVELÜ (TILIA LEAF)
Very aromatic white grape variety used in Hungary to produce tokay.
This can mean the grapes themselves or the picking of the bunches when they reach their optimum ripening. It is also said of the group of bunches that reach the press after being picked. For a wine's quality, it is important to choose the exact date of harvest, which is determined by climatic conditions.
Year in which the grapes used in a certain wine were harvested. To pick grapes.
The same as bacelo.
The same as powdered.
Rich in alcohol, which conveys a feeling of warmth.
Indication of Regulated Provenance (Indicação de Proveniência Regulamentada). Designation used in wines that, although having peculiar characteristics, will have to follow certain rules established for the production of high quality wines. After following all the rules for a minimum period of 5 years, the wines can be qualified as DOC.
Port Wine Institute (free translation for Instituto do Vinho do Porto). Official organisation and regulates and controls the production and commercialisation of Port wine.
Protected Geographical Indication. Acronym used in the European Union to designate wines, or other foodstuffs, which benefits from a Geographical Indication protection system, ensuring its authenticity.
Cylinder shaped container that is filled with ice and used to cool a wine bottle. All wines, whether white, rosé or red, should be cooled in an ice bucket when they're not at the ideal temperature.
Smell resembling that of ripe fruit or fruit compote, i.e., fruit reduced by boiling and rich in sugar.
In Canada, dessert wine - as the German Eiswein - obtained by concentration of the sugar found in frozen grapes.
Fault found in a not very developed wine or a wine that shows excess malic acidity. The wine's green flavour reveals this fault.
Bulky bottle whose content is the equivalent to 8 traditional bottles.
Said of fiery wine that is also rude, i.e., that has a hot, energetic attack when it enters the palate, but quickly ends its development in the mouth, becoming short and leaving feeble sensations.
To smooth wine letting it age in appropriate conditions.
Operations applied to musts that don't have the desired quality. Authorised and regulated operations are the addition of sugar (chaptalisation), acidification or deacidification, depuration, etc.
Production system that uses natural resources and mechanisms of natural regulation to replace harmful components to the environment and to ensure the long-term, viable agriculture.
Racking of the wine, at atmospheric pressure, to separate the deposited sludge.
Hybrid, direct producer of red grape. It also exists in white, which is still grown in Madeira, but mostly to be consumed by the farmer.
Fruity smell found in matured wines (white, rosé or red), resembling that of marmalades and fruit that has been cooked for a long period of time, thus resulting in very concentrate aromatic characteristics.
Gallicism (leg) that designates the tears the wine leaves in the glass.
Grape variety authorised in the Douro region.
Fortified wine of the French Jura that is aged under a veil of flor yeasts.
Three-litre bottle, the equivalent to four common bottles (Champagne), to 4.5 litres, i.e., six regular bottles (Bordeaux), depending on the region.
Sweet drink with high alcohol content that is made adding fortifying spirit to the must before fermentation starts. The amount of spirit added stops fermentation, leaving the wine with a considerable amount of unfermented sugars.
Another name for Riesling, used in Germany and California, where it is also known as J.R.
Container to rack wine.
Grape juice: juice extracted by pressing fresh, unfermented grapes. Liquid extracted from the pressing of fresh grapes not fermented.
One of the designations that identify quality German wines (Qualitätswein mit Prädikat).
Red variety grown in Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria (Gamza), Austria and Macedonia. It produces well structured, though not very pigmented wines characterised by aromas of spices. When it is left to dry on the vine, it produces a very interesting sweet wine.
Clay used for clarifying wine.
Filtering matter made up of diatomaceous earth.
Genetic factor of certain yeast strains that enables them to synthesise substances that are inhibitory to other strains or types of yeast.
Traditional appetiser of Bourgogne. It was created by the Dijon canon, Félix Kir, and is made up of cassis and white wine produced with the Aligoté variety. Kir royal is made up of cassis and champagne.
KNOW HOW TO DRINK (FREE TRANSLATION)
Knowledge of the convenience, hygiene, health and moderation uses allied to the rules of courtesy and hospitality.
Old mills carved in granite rocks, found in some areas, such as in the Dão region, whose real function is still under discussion. It is believed that have been used in the production of wine or olive oil.
L.B.V. (LATE BOTTLED VINTAGE)
Special category of Port with characteristics similar to that of Vintage Port. It is a single year's wine that is bottled between the fourth and sixth years after harvest and ages in bottle. The label should mention the date of harvest and bottling, and must be approved by IVP. There are two types of L.B.V.: the one that is subject to fining and filtering, in order not to form a deposit in the bottle; and the "Traditional" L.B.V., which is not filtered, having a structure similar to that of Vintage and good ageing potential.
Warranty document that is stuck to the bottle. It should mention the wine's identity data: harvest year, alcohol content, quantity, producer or négociant who bottled it. Additional information can be given on the back or neck label.
Each of the operations performed for the growing of vines.
Wild American vine that produces low quality, foxy flavoured wines.
Results from the decomposition of malic acid and is formed during alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. Lactic acid softens the wine.
Disease caused by lactic bacteria that act on reducing sugars, producing lactic and acetic acid.
LAFÕES – INDICATION OF REGULATED PROVENANCE
Lafões is located between the regions of Vinhos Verdes, Dão and Bairrada. Its climatic characteristics are identical to that of the Vinhos Verdes region and the wines produced (mainly white wines) are also very similar.
LAGOA – DENOMINATION OF CONTROLLED ORIGIN
Wine region in the Algarve whose existence is threatened by urban development. The Cooperative Winery produces QWPSR with the white Siria and the red Negra Mole and Periquita grape varieties.
LAGOS – DENOMINATION OF CONTROLLED ORIGIN
Also under the threat of extinction. It has only one producing house, the Cooperative Winery, which produces small amounts of wine. The recommended grape varieties are the white Boal and the red Negra Mola and Periquita.
Grape variety grown in Trentino and Alto Adige to produce a delicate rosé and a velvety red wine.
LATADA (OR RAMADA)
It is vineyard's very high conduction form that exists in the Vinho Verde Region, but also used in Dão region. The vines grow along steelwork (or wood) and wire that are placed horizontally on pillars. These structures are typically found along paths, in squares, or even in fields. Its main advantage lies in the fact that allow to take advantage in areas that at the outset would be nonproductive (as in the case of roads) and, on the other hand increase the production capacity of the space (when the fields are built over other crops).
Wine with low alcohol content and little body. It is the term used to describe the structure of a light wine or any of its characteristics. Can be a positive aspect in young white wines.
It is said of wine with high alcohol content and that, in general, contains a significant amount of sugar, due to the fact that the fermentation being stopped by the addition of brandy.
Adjective applied to wines that reveal strength and vivacity.
Said of a wine when the aftertaste is persistent. Contrary to short.
It is said of a wine made from more than one caste.
Branch, that in the vines pruning, stays closer to the ground.
White grape variety that goes by the name of Viura, in Rioja. It is grown in Spain (Catalonia, Aragon, Castile and Leon) and in the south of France. It produces fruity, dry white wines, though it can also produce very fortified wines in hot areas. It is one of the traditional varieties of sparkling wine.
Exotic Brazilian wood used in the production of tuns.
Floral aroma resembling the perfumed vapours of this infusion plant.
More or less prolonged immersion of red grapes' skins in the fermenting must to extract colour, aromas and tannins. For that, several methods are used, but maceration should always be performed with a healthy harvest. Unlike alcoholic fermentation, which benefits from low temperature (28ºC) inside the tank, maceration can be performed at 30ºC in order to obtain greater dissolution of polysaccharides.
The average climate in a wide region. Its influence is only relative when it comes to a mountainous region. A 1000m elevation implies a climatic change equivalent to a 1000km displacement, at a constant altitude, along a meridian. Thus, for example, a vineyard in Penedés Superior, acclimatised at an altitude of 800m, has a very different climate from that of a vineyard located in Penedés Inferior. In a way, it will have identical characteristics to that of a vineyard located 800km north.
Liqueur wine from Jura that is produced blending grape must with pomace brandy and aged in oak casks.
Said of a white wine that oxidises during ageing in wooden casks, getting an amber colour and a taste resembling Madeira wine. This characteristic, which is a quality in fortified or rancid wines, is a fault in white wines.
Varieties created from crossing and used in Crimea to produce wines of discreet quality. Magaratch ruby (crossing of Cabernet Sauvignon and Saperavi) is the most promising one. Magaratch bastardo (crossing of bastardo Port and Saperavi) produces honest wines.
Floral smell found in some white wines, resembling the perfume of magnolia blossoms.
Bottle with twice the size of a common 75cl bottle, i.e., 150cl. Although its bottle neck is of the same size as those of common bottles, its larger capacity allows wine to "breathe" more. This is why this container is becoming widely used. Red wines and champagnes mature better in these bottles.
It is the process by which the conversion of malic acid to lactic occurs by the action of bacteria, which reduce the acidity of wine. In the case of some white wines, particularly for those that are naturally low-acid, this second fermentation should be avoided as it contributes to an excessive decrease in acidity and primary flavors.
For wines with sugar content that exceeds the limit set for medium dry wines, reaching a maximum of 45 grams/liter.
It is the term applied to wine with a sugar concentration that exceeds the values listed for dry wine, reaching a maximum of 12 grams/liter (or 18 grams / liter, when the total acidity is smaller by not more than 10 grams/liter to sugars content).
Same as varietal.
Liquid resulting from crushing grapes. After fermentation originates the wine.
Large 15l bottle, i.e., the equivalent to 20 0.75l bottles. It is mainly used by sparkling wine brands, on special occasions (promotions, etc.).
Said of a wine without colour, a wine that is open. It is sometimes used as a synonym for dispossessed, punished by treatments.
Intense floral smell resembling that exhaled by narcissus flowers.
Delicate floral aroma given off by dodecanal, resembling the perfume of nard flowers.
Said of a wine that hasn't been adulterated, that manifests its vine, grape variety, harvest year, etc., without addition of illicit products.
NATURAL SWEET WINE
Wine from a rich and ripe harvest, without addition of alcohol to stop fermentation.
NATURAL SWEET WINE
Denomination used for wines obtained mainly from the varieties: Muscat, Grenache, Macabeu and Malvasia. They should proceed from musts with a natural initial sugar content of, at least, 252g per litre, to which alcohol is added during fermentation (5 to 10% of the must's content). In this category one finds the following wines: A. O. C. Rivesaltes, Banyuls, Maury and Muscats (Beaumes-de-Venise, Frontignan). In 1983, its production was of 730517 hectolitres.
Brut Nature or Brut Natural is a very dry sparkling wine to which no sugar has been added.
Depression of the dorsal side of the grape's seed.
Red variety mainly grown in Italy (Piemonte, Lombardia), Uruguay and California. It produces dark wines with excellent tannin and good ageing potential, such as barolo (firm and robust) and barbaresco (delicate and aromatic).
Sensation of "sting" which is caused by carbon dioxide present in some wines (wines greens, in sparkling wine, etc.).
Wine without distinctive features.
It is the state caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea. The action caused by this fungus can be devastating, but in this case, under certain conditions, has a beneficial effect, producing grapes with a higher concentration of sugar, thereby originating sweet wines.
Tree of the genus Quercus (Quercus Ruber) used to obtain noble ageing wood. Among the most appreciated woods one finds the ones from American (Virginia, Ohio and New Orleans) and French (Limousin, Allier, Tronçais, Nevers) oaks.
Said of a strange smell or taste whose origin is not found in the most common diseases or accidents. Instead, it comes from a foreign body that contaminated the wine. Wine easily acquires odd tastes, whether in casks or other storage containers, mainly during rackings.
Unit of measurement expressed in degrees. It calculates the amount of sugar in the grape's must before fermentation.
Related to the wine's aroma.
Animal or vegetable charcoal used to decolour and deodorise musts and spotted or tinted white wines. It is sometimes used to decolour sparkling wines made with red Pinot Noir grapes, whose pigment spotted the wine.
An expert in the field of oenology.
Science that studies winemaking techniques. The science that studies the wine in all its many facets, from its chemical constituents (grape) until the winemaking process.
A person who appreciates or studies wines.
Fear of wines.
Place (cellar, reserve, piece of furniture) where wines are stored and where, sometimes, very old or rare bottles are preserved.
Technique of grapevine's conduction in which it is pruned in the shape of a horizontal cord, comprising a vertical portion, the trunk, that, at one point has a horizontal arm.
It is said of the characteristics of a wine through the senses, such as the color, flavor and taste.
It is the transformation of wine through its contact with oxygen.
Wine that has lost its qualities by excessive contact with air.
Placing the bottles in boxes and storing them before transportation.
Red variety grown in Chile to produce rustic wines. It corresponds to the Argentinian Criolla and the Californian Mission.
PAJARETE OR PAXARETE
Blend of sweet wine and grape preserve that is used in Jerez to colour some dessert wines. Its name proceeds from the Pajarete farm, on the outskirts of Jerez, where one used to produce sweet wines. It is also used by Americans to colour Bourbon whisky, which is then called blending sherry. In Malaga, grape preserve is not always added, thus creating a sweet white wine from 15º and 17º Baumé musts.
Of little intense colour and feeble pigment.
Fine wine from Jerez.
Fortified wine from Jerez resembling the amontillado in the nose and the oloroso in taste.
PALOMINO OR LISTÃ
White variety characteristic of Jerez. It is used in the production of manzanillas, finos, amontillados and olorosos. It is also grown in Portugal (where it is called Perrum), in France (Listan), South Africa, California and Australia (sometimes confused with Cañocazo). Palomino wines have little acidity and a natural trend to oxidise. Therefore, they are usually used only in the production of fortified wines, though, locally, some white table wines are also produced, but these should be drank very young.
Reference group or representative sample of people (buyers, consumers, tasters, etc) that take part in a tasting session that is used as standard.
Panel or group of people that are used as reference in a degustation.
In Spain, local name given to some Mediterranean varieties. Musky Pansa is Muscat of Alexandria; Valencia Pansa is Vinater and white Pansa is Xarel-lo.
Refers to the solid parts of the grapes which come to the surface of the wort during fermentation of red wines.
Aroma from the grapes used in winemaking, manifesting especially in young wines, which gives them fruity characteristics. Also known as varietal aroma.
Insect that attacks the vines, causing its destruction. Although it also affects the leaves of the vines, it is mostly at the level of the roots that the damage is more severe. This pest has revealed all its destructive power in the late nineteenth century, ruining vineyards all around the world and still remains today to be a problem for winemakers.
It is the tender branch of the vine; parra.
Wine too much aged and that, therefore, lost qualities.
Deposit. Sediment that accumulates in the bottom of the containers containing wine.
Foot, shank or holder of flower and fruit.
The same as needle.
Duration/durability of sensations left by the wine in the nose and mouth.
Disturbance caused by lactic acid bacteria, which acting on the sugars to produce lactic acid and acetic acid.
It is the change of color of the grapes by finishing their development cycle and begin the probationary period. The white varieties lose their green hue to go acquiring a more yellowish; red grapes earns violet stains and becomes darker.
Process that during vinification, aims to separate the liquid portion (juice or wine) of the solid matter (pulp).
Quality Sparkling Wine Produced in a Specific Region.
Guarantee of a wine's genuinity given by the region's Wine Commission.
The amount of wine that should be declared or that is unblocked, authorised for sale.
Small bottle with an approximate capacity of a quarter of a litre.
Ancient measure of capacity equivalent to a third of a pinta, ie, about 0.35 litres.
Portuguese term that describes a wine flavoured with quiquine.
Fruity smell resembling that of quince. This aroma, conferred by aldehydes, is characteristic of slightly evolved or matured white whites.
QUINTA (FREE TRANSLATION: FARM)
Wine exploration. Vine, climate or exceptional field that confers a particular character to wines, endowing them with a distinctive, high class category. It has its distinctive name in all countries and regions: grand or premier cru, in Bordeaux; domaine, climat or clos in Bourgogne; vigneti in Italy; single vineyard, in California, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa; pago, in Spain, quinta or casa in Portugal, etc. The quinta is characterised by the fact that it has all the vines used in the production of the wine, in its different varieties and grown according to specific methods. In a way, you could say that a wine from a quinta is totally grown and made "at home", which is the exact opposite of a négociant wine (bought outside the winery).
Quality Wine Produced in a Specific Region. Community nomenclature comprising all wines classified as DOC and IPR.
Boat that was formerly used to transport Port wine along the river Douro. From the Douro region to the cellars in Vila Nova de Gaia, transportation took about three days and the course was full of danger and adventure.
White grape variety recommended in the Douro region. It is resistant to oxidation and produces wines with distinct aroma and flavour and also with good ageing potential.
RABO DE OVELHA
Although there is also the red Rabo de Ovelha grape variety, it is the white variety that gains greater importance in the Portuguese wine heritage. It does not have synonyms and is recommended for the production of white QWPSR in the Dão, Bairrada and Alentejo (except for Portalegre) DOCs and in some DOCs of Ribatejo, Estremadura and Península de Setúbal.
Operation in which the deposits in wine are aerated and separated from the clear wine.
Accessory used to empty tanks or deposits.
Said of the overripe grape, dried in its own vine or harvested and put to dry between straw or hanged on wires. To dry grapes in the plant, one usually uses the old trick of twisting the bunches peduncle, thus cutting the passage of sap.
It was thanks to this red grape variety that the region of Colares became famous. It produces ruby coloured wines with high tannin content that take several years to smoothen. It is grown in the Colares region, in sandy fields located near the coast. For this reason its roots achieve depths of several metres, thus becoming resistant to phylloxera.
Butyric smell of an altered or damaged wine. This unpleasant smell can also be due to a bad cork. It shouldn't be confused with "rancid wines", which are sunny, mature, sweet, refined dessert wines.
Crossing of Chardonnay and Zöldsváni that is grown in Austria, Hungary and Slovenia. In France, where it is consumed as table grape, it is called Bouvier.
Pleasant fruity aroma found in some red wines. In a less noble version it can also be found in some foxy wines made up of wild vines.
Sabre, to open with a sabre
To open a champagne bottle cutting its neck with sabre wire.
It is the woody part of the cluster which supports the berries. When not removed after harvest, give to wines herbal aromas.
The aging process of wine in bottle, without contact with air. The opposite term of oxidation.
Designation prescribed by law, assigned to wine which organoleptic characteristics, an alcoholic strength exceeding at least 0.5% vol. to the required minimum content. Its use requires the indication of the year of harvest. This designation can only be used for wines with Designation of Origin and Geographical Indication.
Table wine with geographical indication. Must meet certain requirements, one of which is in the minimum amount in their preparation, the use of 85 percent of grapes of the region. In practice, the indications Regional Wines Designation of Origin and Protected Geographical Indication; vie with each other in relation to their quality.
Aroma and flavor evoking dried fruit, coffee or toasted bread.
Said of a wine that is overly astringent, causing a feeling of "scrape".
It is the name given to rotten grapes due to the action of fungi. This decay is typically due to adverse conditions during ripening, such as rain and fog.
Same as bacelo.
Rich in tannins with good structure, full bodied, round.
Wine that has a soft texture in the mouth and a good body.
Deposition in the bottom of the tank, suspended particles by gravity.
Grape variety authorised in Alentejo.
Scientific name for yeasts: small fungi that transform glucose into ethanol during alcoholic fermentation.
Wine used in Christian and Jewish liturgical ceremonies.
Natural sweet wine produced according to Vatican's canonical norms. Sacramental wine is very appreciated in Spain and Italy, but is currently getting forgotten.
White variety grown in the Yonne region, producing a fresh, dry wine.
Aroma of spices, resembling saffron.
Sometimes said of some fortified wines (finos or manzanillas) that undergo a long flor ageing.
Viscous, ropy, opalescent liquid secreted by the salivary glands. The saliva wets the mouth and lubricates the buccal mucous. It has mucin, mineral salts, organic matter and enzymes that hydrolyse glucosides. It plays an essential role in tasting, since it transmits tastes to the gustatory papillae.
9 litre wine bottle, the equivalent to 12 common bottles, i.e., the equivalent to a box.
Aroma that arises from the fermentation process, which tends to disappear within one or two years.
Particles that settle to the bottom of the bottles or other containers. As sediments are deposited, the clearer the wine becomes.
Designation prescribed by law for wines with Designation of Origin or Geographical Indication presenting organoleptic characteristics, an alcoholic strength equal to or greater in 1% vol., related the minimum threshold. Requires the indication of the harvest year.
Aromas reminiscent of the odor of burned wood.
Balanced, with little astringency.
Aroma that comes from the excessive use of preservatives sulfur as sulfur dioxide and sulphites in wine.
How the elements of a wine come together. In a well-structured wine the various elements are in harmony. A wine without structure, it presents boring without consistency.
STORING (OF WINE)
Wine suitable for aging in bottle.
Emergence of thistles (shoots or buds).
A sommelier is a professional specialist in wines. At the restaurant is the person who advises clients on wines and serves them.
Are the aromas and flavors present in some wines that evoke these foods (pepper, cinnamon ...).
Operations performed before bottling process, with the aim of eliminating particles (such as tartrate) that could appear later in the bottle.
Refers to the designation provided for by law, reserved to wines with designation of origin or geographical indication, presenting special organoleptic characteristics and an alcoholic content of at least 1% vol. superior to the prescribed limit.
Act of digging the earth in order to improve their fertility.
Refers to a wine with no body, diluted, watery, low in alcohol.
It is said of a wine whose sugar content is less than 45 grams/liter.
Honey flavor that is manifested in some fortified wines, also occurring in some white wines.
Wine that is not supported in a specific region, though it may be of great quality. Some producers decide to make wines from varieties that are not authorised by regulation in some Denominations of Origin or to use different ageing processes, etc., and bottle them simply as "table wine" (vino de tavola, vin de table, Tafelwein).
White grape variety recommended in the Ribatejo and Oeste regions.
Fat matter used in the corking of casks and all wood pieces whose sealing is imperfect.
White grape variety recommended in some regions of Alentejo (Portalegre, Borba, Redondo and Évora) and authorised in the other ones.
Fruity smell resembling the perfume of tangerines.
Metallic container used to make, store or transport musts and wines.
Container in which the fermentation of musts takes place or where wines are stored. Preferably, it should be of stainless steel, but there are also resin coated cement tanks.
Red vine typical of Southwest France. It produces very structured, fine wines with good ageing potential. It has tannin, structure, alcoholic strength, qualities that require ageing. It is the main variety used in the production of madiran.
Said of a wine rich in tannins (astringent, harsh or pleasant, round, fused, etc). It is said of wine with high presence of tannins.
Group of the phenolic compounds in a wine, which are responsible for its colour, aroma, structure and many other virtues. Astringent flavoured organic substance that is found in the grape seeds and skins. Oak wood also produces tannins during ageing, which are characteristic of its vegetal cortex. One sometimes makes a distinction between sweet or smooth tannins (from the grape) and harsh tannins (the ones from the ageing wood). The grapes' natural tannins are a healthy, protective shield that helps prevent the arteries from the formation of atheromatous plaque or fat. By increasing the blood's HDL cholesterol level, its action is beneficial, similar to that of olive oil or blue fish. Recent scientific discoveries have allowed one to evaluate the antioxidant power of some phenolic substances in wine, such as resveratrol. These substances would play a modest, but not insignificant role in the prevention of cancer.
Precipitation of the tartrate, present in young wines, which can be artificially induced by the action of cold.
Elements derived from tartaric acid that are deposited during the wine stage process.
Subjective assessment of wines, using the sensory organs (sight, smell and taste).
Aroma acquired after the stage in barrel or bottle aging, also known as bouquet. Few years may be needed until the bouquet of a wine reveals itself.
Corresponds to the sum of the fixed acidity and volatile acidity.
Operation which consists in separating the wine from sediments deposited in the containers which has been stored or in stage, passing from these containers to others.
The opposite to clarity. Existence of particles suspended in the wine.
White variety grown in the French Midi. Ugni Blanc goes by the name of Saint Émilion in the vineyards of the Cognac region and in California. It produces a very acid and little alcoholic wine that is used in the production of good brandies. Since it is resistant to rot, this variety has replaced Folle Blanche. In Italy, it goes by the name of Trebbiano.
ULL DE LLEBRE
In Catalonia, Tempranillo.
Wine that doesn't show harmony between its components; wine that has an exaggerated dominant character.
Said of a wine with little colour, especially a red wine that has lost its colour during ageing.
Rich in glycerol, smooth, soft to the taste. If it is, simultaneously, rich in alcohol, it will create tears in the body.
Wine that, because of its youth, hasn't developed its qualities yet and shows a certain ambiguity of style and balance.
Authorisation from the Ministry of Agriculture that allows the sale of wine volumes that had been locked so as to regulate the market.
Said of a wine that causes an unpleasant sensation (of rejection).
Small, unripe grapes that come in some bunches and never totally ripe.
Red variety that produces a little alcoholic, astringent, colourful wine. It is grown in Tarn.
VALPAÇOS – INDICATION OF REGULATED PROVENANCE
Wine region located in northeast Portugal and known for producing slender, dry but pleasant wines with good ageing potential. The grape varieties recommended for the production of red wines are Tinta Roriz, Bastardo, Touriga Franca, Touriga Nacional, Trincadeira Preta, Marufo and Cornifesto. It also produces white wines with the recommended gapre varieties Fernão Pires, Gouveio, Malvasia Fina and Síria.
Aromatised balsamic smell found in several wines. It is originated in a phenol aldehyde or vanilla ester. The oxidation of the vat's oak wood can originate vanilla compounds, combined with the wine's polyphenols. The taste of vanilla may be given off by 4-ethyl guaiacol (taste of oak and vanilla).
Said of a wine without colour, either by lack of pigments or because anthocyanins precipitated by decrepitude.
Aroma and flavour of the vine that gave rise to the wine. The varietal complexity is related to the nobility of certain appreciated vines, such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Riesling, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Gewürztraminer, Sauvignon Blanc, Moscatel, Tinta Roriz, etc.
Tasting of different wines produced with the same grape variety (Riesling, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Touriga Nacional, Grenache, etc.).
Smell characteristic of very old wines or distilleds. It is originated in an alcoholic oxidation after a long ageing in wood. But it can also appear due to brandies and wines (or glasses!) in contact with varnished woods.
Wood, cement or stainless steel container used to ferment or store wines.
Large, vertically placed wooden containers in which Port Wine stays in contact with air, thus undergoing oxidative ageing.
Acronym for Verband Deutscher Naturwein Versteigerer, German wine producers association.
Said of a wine that, in the mouth, shows itself nice, soft, smooth, round.
It is said of a wine that has a smell and taste of vinegar.
Set of varieties that make up a vineyard.
A term applied to young wines. It is an aroma lost in more complex wines.
It is composed mostly by acetic acid and by one of its derivatives, ethyl acetate, the latter being responsible, when present in excessive amounts; by vinegary taste that can arise in some wines.
White grape variety (Italic Riesling).
Floral smell resembling the strong fragrance of wallflowers.
Smell of dry fruit that can be found in fortified wines Sherry, Montilla-Moriles, Tawny Port). It resembles walnuts (with tones of green, ripe or dry walnuts).
Said of a robust, powerful wine with an alcoholic richness that warms the mouth.
Distilled, pure, neutral water is used to reduce the alcohol content of spirits.
Formerly, wine baptised with water. Currently, poor, dilute wines without pigment, aroma, fruit, extract, vinosity and acidity.
Said of wine with low alcohol content, body and extract.
Said of a feeble, thin, dry wine.
Microlepidopterous insect whose larvae attack the grapevine's flowers and leaves. The insect is currently fought with insecticides, but for many years the method used consisted of spraying the vines with hot water while the insect was hibernating. This practice was discovered by chance, by Benito Raclet, mine engineer and admirer of viticulture. Raclet noticed that a vine located underneath his kitchen window, to where he used to throw hot water, wasn't attacked by webworm.
Manual work performed in August to remove weeds.
Product obtained exclusively by alcoholic, total or partial fermentation from fresh or not crushed grapes, or the juice of grapes.
Wine extracted from bagasse by pressing.
This is the entity responsible for controlling the production and the quality of regional wines or with certain Denomination of Origin, among other functions.
With the use of wire.
White variety acclimatised in Catalonia. It may be a mutation of Corsica's red Sciaccarello. Xarel.lo produces medium quality wines; however, its robustness is used in the traditional assemblage of sparkling wines.
Effect caused by pollen on a fruit's maternal tissue.
Acronym for Extra Old. Type of brandy aged for 5 or more years for cognac (72 months and more in wood).
Microscopic, unicellular fungus found in grapes' skins and responsible for alcoholic fermentation (transforming the grapes' sugar into alcohol). Although yeasts exist in the grapes' skins, one may have to add some more yeasts to the must in order for fermentation to occur. Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out among grape yeasts, since it acts during the entire fermentation process, as long as there is sugar in the must and temperatures are not too high. Therefore, it is important to control the temperature in very hot wineries and climates.
Group of yeasts that is used to promote alcoholic fermentation or stimulate second fermentation in bottle in the production of natural sparkling wine.
Said of a white wine with different tones: golden-yellow, straw-yellow, pale yellow, etc.
Topaz coloured Port wine. It is usually called "tawny".
A vineyard's base yield is established by the amount produced in a hectare. Each region establishes the maximum yield per hectare - 40, 50, 100 hectolitres per hectare - according to areas and varieties. Defined by the amount of wine, expressed in hectoliters per hectare of vineyard. The maximum yields per hectare are set for wines with Designation of Origin.
Young, recently harvested and produced wine. Usually fruity, not very tannic wine with pleasant acidity, not fit for ageing (for example, white and sparkling wines); it can also be said of a recently made wine that can and should age.
YOUNG, IMMATURE GRAPE, BEFORE RIPENING
Appearance of the bunches before bloom. It is the first announcement of a good harvest, if the flower is kept without problems.
Traditional red variety of California. It is robust and tannic, producing very deep wines with fruit and unmistakable character.
Group of enzymes that catalyse the transformation of glucose and fructose into ethyl alcohol during alcoholic fermentation.